Saturday, May 21, 2011

Friday, May 6, 2011

International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)
  1. On 4th April 1947, all members who participated in the Chicago convention of 1944, gathered in Montreal Canada to administrate the agreement made in the Chicago Convention.
  2. A common standardise civil aviation regulations and requirements was made up by all the participating member countries whose aircraft flying on International routes.
  3. The regulations and requirements are only applicable to civil aircraft.
  4. It was also established no Civil Aircraft shall fly over another country unless prior authorisation or permission is granted.
  5. It was also established that when aircraft flies on International route, due to regards to safety of Air Navigation must be considered. 

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The Chicago Convention of 1944
  1. A meeting was called in Chicago (USA) in 1944, to standardise Civil Aviation policy and  procedure.
  2. The meeting was made up of members of various countries who has civil aircraft flying on International route.
  3. A common policy and procedure was discussed to standardise civil aviation and these were:

·         Standardise International Air Navigational (Flying)
·         Standardise International Air Transport (Airport & other services)
·         Standardise Technical Standards and recommended practices (Repair & Maintenance)
·         Standardise the management system on manpower, material, machine/equipment, method laws & money.

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History of Aircraft Flight
  1. The Wright brothers flew the first aircraft successfully on 17 Dec 1903.
  2. Aeroplanes were built by various countries (USA, Russia, UK, France, German) but these were state aircrafts.
  3. As aeronautics improved, various countries started to build civil aircrafts.
  4. These aircrafts flew within their country and was governed by the law of the respective country
  5. On 25 August 1919, the first commercial aircraft took off from London to Paris, and this started the First International Aviation Flight.
  6. As civil aviation progressed, more countries started international flights, as this caused air congestion, and air accident.
  7. To resolve air congestion and air accident, the Chicago convention was formed to standardise Civil Aviation for civil aircraft flying on International routes.

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What is a Civil and State aircraft?

1.Civil category:

Transport category aircraft
-          Passenger aircraft - these aircrafts carries paid passengers and their personal baggages.
-          Cargo aircraft        ­ - the aircrafts are only used for carrying paid cargo.

Aerial category aircraft
-          These aircraft SHALL not carry any passengers or cargo.
-          These aircraft is to be used for the following purpose:
·         Crop spraying (Agriculture)
·         Search and rescue
·         Fire fighting
·         Aerial photography
·         Cloud seeding
·         Para trooping or static drop or free fall
·         Constructions
·         Surveying
·         Observation and patrol
·         Aerial advertisement

Private category aircraft
-          Aircrafts used by individual people or a group of people for own use or pleasure.

Special category aircraft
-          These aircrafts are used for demonstration flights, with the view of sale
-          Aircraft being used for charter flights are also classified under this
-          Aircraft flying for maintenance repair or modification
-          Aircraft on flight test

2.State category:
-          State aircrafts are government owned aircrafts and are used in
·         Military
·         Police
·         Customs
-          The aircrafts do not come under DCA Malaysia but it has the respective Ministry of Defense or Ministry of Home Affairs.                                           

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What is Air Legislation?

-Air legislation are air laws governing Air Navigation, Air Transport, and Maintenance of Civil Aircraft  and its equipments, to minimum acceptable Air worthiness standard as defined in the law of the country or land.
-Air law is the same to 85% of all countries, operating civil aircraft. 15% laws governs the operation of civil   aircraft of individual countries.
-Air laws consist of numerous regulations and requirements.

The differences between Regulations and Requirements

-Regulations are air laws which as applicable to civil aircraft.
-Regulations are approved by the Parliament of the country and becomes the law.
-If a regulation is not followed, then the penalty is the case treated in a civil court for conviction.
-Words such as SHALL and MUST  are used in regulations.

-These are standards used in civil aircraft.
-Requirements are not approved by parliament.
­-Therefore if it is not followed, it is treated as non compliance.
-Words such as MAY, IF, AS, NECESSARY  is used in requirements.

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